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Zumdahl Chapter 2: Introduction to periodic table




The Periodic Table:

 Metals :Most of the elements are metals, and characterized by

1- Efficient conductivity of heat and electricity

2- Malleability: can be hammered into sheets

3- Ductility: can be pulled into wire

4- Lustrous

5- Tend to lose electrons to form positive ion such as copper (Cu).

Nonmetals: Upper-right Corner of the Table

1- Tend to gain electrons to form negative ions

2- Atoms bonded by covalent bond such as Cl

3- React with metals to form salts (ionic compounds) such as NaCl.

4- React with nonmetals to form covalent bond (molecular compounds) such as HCl.
  •  Each column called group or family: have the same properties 
  •  Alkali metals: (IA or 1) very reactive form +1 ions 
  • Alkaline earth metals: (2A or 2) form +2 ions 
  • Halogens: (7 A or 17) forms -1 ions 
  • Noble gases: (8A or 18) exist as monoatomic gases with little chemical reactivity. 
  • Horizontal row called period.