Chemistry. It is the branch of science which deals with the composition, preparation and properties of the substances.
Main branches of chemistry: (1) Inorganic chemistry (2) Physical chemistry (3) Organic chemistry (4) Biochemistry (5) Analytical chemistry (6) Agricultural chemistry (7) Industrial chemistry.
Scientific Methods : The scientific method consist of the following five steps :
1 - To accumulate information through observation
2 - To organize this information and to seek regularities in it.
3 - To wonder why regularities are there.
4 - To frame hypothesis, theories and laws.
5 - To communicate the knowledge to others.
Law: It is a brief statement that can be accepted as general truth.
Hypothesis: It is a provisional conjecture (based upon available data) to explain the known facts about a phenomenon.
Theory: Theory is the result of testing and retesting the hypothesis by experiments under different conditions.
Role of Chemistry: The role of chemistry can be summarized as below :
1 - Population explosion: Chemistry has solved this growing population by new birth controlling drugs.
2 - Food for millions: Chemists have developed new fertilizers such as urea etc. and effective insecticides such as DDT for better agriculture.
3 - Treatment of diseases: Chemists have saved man from dreadful diseases such as malaria, T.B ., Typhoid. They have produced wonderful drugs like penicillin, vitamins, hormones etc.
4 - Environmental pollution: Chemist are dedicated in devising new methods for checking air and water pollution.
5 - Energy resources. The chemists are trying to exploit new sources of energy like sea, air etc. meet the demand of energy.
Father of chemistry: Robert Boyle.
Founder of modern chemistry: Lavoisier.