Acetic Acid

A colorless, pungent liquid, CH3COOH, melting at 16. 7°C and boil­ing at 118.0°C. Acetic acid is the sour principle in vinegar. Concentrated acid is called glacial acetic acid because of its readiness to crystallize at cool temperatures.
Acetic acid is manufactured by three main routes: butane liquid-phase catalytic ox­idation in acetic acid solvent, palladium-copper salt-catalyzed oxidation of ethylene in aqueous solution, and methanol carbonylation in the presence of rhodium catalyst. Large quantities of acetic acid are recovered in the manufacture of cellulose acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. Some acetic acid is produced in the oxidation of higher olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and alcohols.
Pure acetic acid is completely miscible with water, ethanol, diethyl ether, and carbon tetrachloride, but is not soluble in carbon disulfide. In a water solution, acetic acid is a typical weakly ionized acid (Ka= 1.8 x 10-5). Acetic acid neutralizes many oxides and hydroxides, and decomposes carbonates to furnish acetate salts, which are used in textile dyeing and finishing, as pigments, and as pesticides; examples are verdigris, white lead, and paris green.